In many societies, being extremely thin is the standard of beauty for women and represents success, happiness, and self-control. Women are bombarded with messages from the media that they must diet to meet this standard. However, this idealized ultra-thin body shape is almost impossible for most women to achieve since it does not fit with the biological and inherited factors that determine natural body weight. This conflict leaves most women very dissatisfied with their body weight and shape.
More recently, pressure has also increased on men to be lean and muscular. In addition, in certain occupations (such as dancing, modeling, and sports like gymnastics, figure skating, running, and wrestling), the pressure to maintain a specific weight and appearance is especially strong.
Psychological characteristics that can make a person more likely to develop anorexia nervosa include:
Feelings of ineffectiveness
Poor body image
Difficulty expressing feelings
Rigid thinking patterns
Need for control
Physical or sexual abuse
Avoidance of conflict with others
Need to feel special or unique
People with anorexia nervosa often appear emotionally driven not only toward weight loss, but also in other areas of their life, such as schoolwork, physical fitness, or career. It has also been suggested that in some cases of anorexia nervosa, self-starvation may be a way to avoid the sexual and social demands associated with adolescence.
One of the problems in determining which traits may cause anorexia nervosa is that the weight loss itself causes certain psychological disturbances to develop. These may include depression, anxiety, irritability, mood swings, obsessive thinking, feelings of inadequacy, social withdrawal, and personality changes. Thus, some of the traits that occur in anorexia nervosa may be a result, rather than a cause, of the disorder.
Some family styles may contribute to the development of anorexia nervosa. Families of people with the disorder are more likely to be:
Suffocating in their closeness
In these cases, anorexia nervosa develops as a struggle for independence and individuality. It is likely to surface in adolescence when new demands for independence occur.
Other characteristics of families that may increase the chance of developing anorexia nervosa are:
Overvaluing appearance and thinness
Criticizing a child's weight or shape
Being physically or sexually abusive
Anorexia nervosa occurs eight times more often in people who have relatives with the disorder. However, experts do not know exactly what the inherited factor may be. In addition, anorexia nervosa occurs more often in families with a history of depression or alcohol abuse.
Life transitions can often trigger anorexia nervosa in someone who is already vulnerable because of the factors described above. Examples include:
Beginning of adolescence
Beginning or failing in school or at work
Breakup of a relationship
Death of a loved one
Dieting and losing weight can also set off anorexia nervosa.
Once anorexia nervosa has developed, several factors can perpetuate the disorder. These factors include:
Symptoms of starvation
Other people's reactions to the weight loss
Emotional needs filled by feelings of self-control, virtue, and power from controlling one's weight
The resulting cycle makes it more difficult to stop the disorder and become healthy again.